Mishneh Torah - Preface

Introduction | Positive Commandments | Negative Commandments | Structure of the 14 Books

Positive Commandments

, , " ' " ( ,; ,). 1 The first of the positive commandments is to know that there exists God, as it is written "I am the LORD, thy God" (Exodus 20,2; Deuteronomy 5,6).
, "' , ' " ( ,). 2 To acknowledge His Oneness, as it is written "the LORD our God, the LORD is One" (Deuteronomy 6,4).
, ", ' " ( ,; ,). 3 To love Him, as it is written "and thou shalt love the LORD thy God" (Deuteronomy 6,5; Deuteronomy 11,1).
, "-' " ( ,; ,). 4 To fear Him, as it is written "thou shalt fear the LORD thy God" (Deuteronomy 6,13; Deuteronomy 10,20).
, ", ' " ( ,); . 5 To pray to Him, as it is written "and ye shall serve the LORD your God" (Exodus 23,25); this service is prayer.
, " " ( ,). 6 To cleave to Him, as it is written "and to Him shalt thou cleave" (Deuteronomy 10,20).
, ", " ( ,; ,). 7 To swear by His Name, as it is written "and by His name, shalt thou swear" (Deuteronomy 6,13; Deuteronomy 10,20).
, ", " ( ,). 8 To imitate His good and upright ways, as it is written "and walk in His ways" (Deuteronomy 28,9).
, ", " ( ,). 9 To sanctify His Name, as it is written "but I will be hallowed among the Children of Israel" (Leviticus 22,32).
, " ... " ( ,). 10 To recite the Shema` twice daily, as it is written "and thou shalt talk of them ... when thou liest down, and when thou risest up" (Deuteronomy 6,7).
, " " ( ,). 11 To learn Torah and to teach it, as it is written "thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children" (Deuteronomy 6,7).
, " , " ( ,). 12 To bind tefillin on the head, as it is written "and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes" (Deuteronomy 6,8).
, " , -" ( ,). 13 To bind tefillin on the arm, as it is written "and thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand" (Deuteronomy 6,8).
, " " ( ,). 14 To make tzitzit, as it is written "and they shall make for themselves fringes" (Numbers 15,38).
, " -" ( ,; ,). 15 To fasten a mezuzah, as it is written "and thou shalt write them upon the door-posts" (Deuteronomy 6,9; Deuteronomy 11,20).
, " -" ( ,). 16 To assemble the people to hear Torah after the end of the Sabbatical year, as it is written "assemble the people" (Deuteronomy 31,12).
, " - " ( ,). 17 For each man to write a Torah scroll for himself, as it is written "write ye this song for you" (Deuteronomy 31,19).
, , , " - " ( ,). 18 For the king to write a Torah scroll for himself, besides the one for every man, so that he shall have two Torah scrolls, as it is written "and he shall write for himself a copy of this Torah" (Deuteronomy 17,18).
, ", --" ( ,). 19 To say a blessing after meals, as it is written "thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless" (Deuteronomy 8,10).
, " , " ( ,). 20 To build the Sanctuary, as it is written "and they shall make Me a sanctuary" (Exodus 25,8).
, " " ( ,; ,). 21 To revere this house, as it is written "and reverence My sanctuary" (Leviticus 19,30; Leviticus 26,2).
, " , " ( ,). 22 To stand guard over this house perpetually, as it is written "thou and thy sons with thee being before the tent of the testimony" (Numbers 18,2).
, " " ( ,). 23 For the Levite to serve in the Temple, as it is written "and the Levite alone shall serve" (Numbers 18,23).
, " ..." ( ,). 24 For the Priest to sanctify his hands and feet at the time of service, as it is written "and Aharon and his sons shall wash ..." (Exodus 30,19).
, " " ( ,). 25 To arrange lamps in the Temple, as it is written "Aharon and his sons shall set it in order" (Exodus 27,21).
, " - " ( ,). 26 For the Priests to bless Israel, as it is written "thus shall ye bless the Children of Israel" (Numbers 6,23).
' , " - " ( ,). 27 To set in order bread and frankincense before the LORD every Sabbath, as it is written "thou shalt set upon the table showbread" (Exodus 25,30).
, " , " ( ,). 28 To burn incense twice daily, as it is written "and Aharon shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices" (Exodus 30,7).
, ", -" ( ,). 29 To arrange a fire perpetually on the Altar of the Burnt Offering, as it is written "fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually" (Leviticus 6,6).
, " -" ( ,). 30 To remove the ashes from upon the Altar daily, as it is written "and he shall take up the ashes" (Leviticus 6,3).
, " -, - -" ( ,). 31 To send the unclean out of the Camp of the Holy Presence, that is, the Temple, as it is written "that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath a defiling issue" (Numbers 5,2).
, "" ( ,). 32 To show honor to the offspring of Aharon and to give him priority in all things holy, as it is written "and thou shalt sanctify him" (Leviticus 21,8).
, " -" ( ,). 33 For the Priests to wear priestly garments for their service, as it is written "and thou shalt make holy garments" (Exodus 28,2).
, " " ( ,). 34 To bear the Ark on the shoulder when carrying it, as it is written "they shall bear upon the shoulder" (Numbers 7,9).
, " - " ( ,). 35 To anoint high priests and kings with the anointing oil, as it is written "this shall be a holy anointing oil" (Exodus 30,31).
, , "- ..." ( ,) " , -" ( ,). 36 For the Priests to serve in the Temple in divisions, but on festivals to serve together, as it is written "and if a Levite come ..." (Deuteronomy 18,6) "beside that which is his due according to the fathers' houses" (Deuteronomy 18,8).
, ", " ( ,). 37 For the Priests to become unclean for their deceased relatives and mourn for them like the rest of Israel who are commanded to mourn for their dead, as it is written "for her, he shall defile himself" (Leviticus 21,3).
, ", " ( ,). 38 For the High Priest to marry a virgin, as it is written "and he shall take a wife in her virginity" (Leviticus 21,13).
, " , " ( ,). 39 To offer the perpetual sacrifices daily, as it is written "two a day, for a continual burnt-offering" (Numbers 28,3).
, " " ( ,). 40 For the High Priest to offer a meal offering daily, as it is written "this is the offering of Aharon and of his sons" (Leviticus 6,13).
, ", ---" ( ,). 41 To offer an additional sacrifice every Sabbath, as it is written "and on the Sabbath day, two he-lambs" (Numbers 28,9).
, ", " ( ,). 42 To offer an additional sacrifice at the beginning of each new month, as it is written "and in your new moons" (Numbers 28,11).
, " , '" ( ,). 43 To offer an additional sacrifice during the Festival of Pesach, as it is written "seven days ye shall bring an offering made by fire" (Leviticus 23,36).
, " -" ( ,). 44 To bring the meal offering of the Omer on the day after the first day of Pesach together with one lamb, as it is written "then ye shall bring an Omer" (Leviticus 23,10).
, " ... " ( ,-). 45 To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Shavu`ot, as it is written "and in the day of the first-fruits ... and ye shall present a burnt-offering" (Numbers 28,26-27).
, " ... -" ( ,-). 46 To bring two loaves of bread together with the sacrifices that are offered because of the loaves on the Festival of Shavu`ot, as it is written "ye shall bring out of your dwelling places wave loaves ... and ye shall present sacrifices with the bread" (Leviticus 23,17-18).
, " ... " ( ,-). 47 To offer an additional sacrifice on Rosh Hashanah, as it is written "and in the seventh month, on the first day of the month ... and ye shall prepare a burnt-offering" (Numbers 29,1-2).
, " ..." ( ,). 48 To offer an additional sacrifice on the Day of the Fast, as it is written "and on the tenth day of this seventh month ..." (Numbers 29,7).
, " ... , " ( ,-), " " ( ,). 49 To do the service of the day on the Day of the Fast, as it is written "with this shall Aharon come ... and of the congregation of the Children of Israel" (Leviticus 16,3-5), and the whole service as described in the portion for "after the death" (Leviticus Chapter 16).
, " ..." ( ,). 50 To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Sukkot, as it is written "and ye shall present a burnt-offering ..." (Numbers 29,13).
, , ", --" ( ,). 51 To offer an additional sacrifice on the day of Shemini Atzeret, for this day is a pilgrimage festival in itself, as it is written "on the eighth day, a solemn assembly" (Numbers 29,35).
, " , " ( ,). 52 To celebrate on the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written "three times thou shalt keep a feast unto Me" (Exodus 23,14).
, " , --, -" ( ,; ,; ,). 53 To appear on the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written "three times in the year shall all thy males appear" (Exodus 23,17; Exodus 34,23; Deuteronomy 16,16).
, ", " ( ,). 54 To rejoice during the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written "and thou shalt rejoice in thy feast" (Deuteronomy 16,14).
, " , -" ( ,). 55 To slaughter the Pesach lamb, as it is written "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it" (Exodus 12,6).
, " -, " ( ,). 56 To eat the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice on the night of the Fifteenth, as it is written "and they shall eat the flesh in that night" (Exodus 12,8).
, " " ( ,). 57 To keep the second Pesach, as it is written "in the second month on the fourteenth day" (Numbers 9,11).
, "- , " ( ,). 58 To eat the Pesach sacrifice then, as it is written "they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs" (Numbers 9,11).
, " " ( ,). 59 To sound the trumpets over sacrifices and in times of troubles, as it is written "ye shall blow with the trumpets" (Numbers 10,10).
, " , " ( ,). 60 To bring sacrifices of animals when they are eight days old or older, as it is written "and from the eighth day and thenceforth" (Leviticus 22,27).
, " " ( ,). 61 For every animal offered to be perfect, as it is written "it shall be perfect to be accepted" (Leviticus 22,21).
, " -, " ( ,). 62 To salt every sacrifice, as it is written "with all thy offerings thou shalt offer salt" (Leviticus 2,13).
, "- " ( ,). 63 The procedure for the burnt offering, as it is written "if his offering be a burnt-offering" (Leviticus 1,3).
, " " ( ,). 64 The procedure for the sin offering, as it is written "this is the law of the sin-offering" (Leviticus 6,18).
, " , " ( ,). 65 The procedure for the guilt offering, as it is written "this is the law of the guilt-offering" (Leviticus 7,1).
, " , " ( ,). 66 The procedure for the peace offering, as it is written "and this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings" (Leviticus 7,11).
, ", - " ( ,). 67 The procedure for the meal offering, as it is written "and when any one bringeth a meal-offering" (Leviticus 2,1).
, " - , " ( ,). 68 For the Great Rabbinical Court to offer a sacrifice, if they have erred in instruction, as it is written "and if the whole congregation of Israel shall err" (Leviticus 4,13).
, " -" ( ,). 69 For an individual to bring a sin offering, if he has sinned unintentionally in a negative commandment punishable by excision, as it is written "if any one sin" (Leviticus 5,1).
, "- ... -" ( ,-); . 70 For an individual to bring an offering, if he is in doubt as to whether he has committed a sin for which one brings a sin offering or not, as it is written "though he know it not, yet is he guilty ... and he shall bring his guilt-offering" (see Leviticus 5,17-18); this is called a conditional guilt offering.
, , , , ; . 71 For one who has unintentionally benefited from consecrated things, or sinned in robbery or with a bondmaid betrothed to another, or denied what was deposited with him and swore falsely, to bring a guilt offering; and this is called an unconditional guilt offering.
, "- " ( ,), "- " ( ,). 72 To offer a sacrifice according to means, as it is written "and if his means suffice not" (Leviticus 5,7), "but if his means suffice not" (Leviticus 5,11).
' , , ", - " ( ,). 73 To confess before the LORD for any sin that one has committed, whether bringing a sacrifice or not bringing a sacrifice, as it is written "they shall confess their sin which they have done" (Numbers 5,7).
, "- ..." ( ,). 74 For a man having an unclean issue to bring a sacrifice after he becomes clean, as it is written "and when he that hath an issue is cleansed ..." (Leviticus 15,13).
, "-, " ( ,). 75 For a woman having an unclean issue to bring a sacrifice after she becomes clean, as it is written "and if she be cleansed of her issue" (Leviticus 15,28).
, " " ( ,). 76 For a woman after childbirth to bring a sacrifice after she becomes clean, as it is written "and when the days of her purification are fulfilled" (Leviticus 12,6).
, " " ( ,). 77 For a leper to bring a sacrifice after he becomes clean, as it is written "and on the eighth day" (Leviticus 14,10).
, "- " ( ,). 78 To tithe animals, as it is written "and all the tithe of the herd or the flock" (Leviticus 27,32).
, "- " ( ,). 79 To sanctify the first-born of clean animals and bring it as a sacrifice, as it is written "all the firstling males that are born" (Deuteronomy 15,19).
, " , " ( ,). 80 To redeem the first-born of man, as it is written "howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem" (Numbers 18,15).
, " " ( ,). 81 To redeem the first-born of an ass, as it is written "and the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb" (Exodus 34,20).
, "- " ( ,; ,). 82 To decapitate the first-born of an ass, as it is written "and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck" (Exodus 13,13; Exodus 34,20).
, " . " ( ,-). 83 To bring all of a person's sacrifices, whether obligatory or voluntary, on the first pilgrimage festival that comes, as it is written "and thither thou shalt come; and thither ye shall bring" (Deuteronomy 12,5-6).
, " , " ( ,). 84 To offer all sacrifices in the Sanctuary, as it is written "and there shalt thou do all that I command thee" (Deuteronomy 12,14).
, " - , , " ( ,); . 85 To take the trouble to bring sacrifices to the Sanctuary from outside the Land of Israel, as it is written "only thy holy things which thou hast, and thy vows, thou shalt take and come" (Deuteronomy 12,26); it was learned from the oral tradition that this specifically refers to sacrifices from outside the Land of Israel.
, " - " ( ,); . 86 To redeem consecrated animals that have disqualifying blemishes, and then they may be eaten, as it is written "notwithstanding thou mayest slaughter and eat flesh, after all the desire of thy soul" (Deuteronomy 12,15); it was learned from the oral tradition that this specifically refers to consecrated animals that have become unfit that shall be redeemed.
, "- -" ( ,; ,). 87 For an animal substituted for one consecrated for sacrifice to be holy, as it is written "then both it and that for which it is changed shall be holy" (Leviticus 27,10; Leviticus 27,33).
, " , " ( ,). 88 To eat the remainder of meal offerings, as it is written "and that which is left thereof shall Aharon and his sons eat" (Leviticus 6,9).
, " " ( ,). 89 To eat the flesh of a sin offering and guilt offering, as it is written "and they shall eat those things wherewith atonement was made" (Exodus 29,33).
, " - -" ( ,). 90 To burn the flesh of a sacrifice that has become unclean, as it is written "and the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing" (Leviticus 7,19).
, ", --, , , " ( ,). 91 To burn the flesh of a sacrifice that has been left over, as it is written "but that which remaineth of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire" (Leviticus 7,17).
, " , " ( ,). 92 For the Nazarite to let his hair grow, as it is written "he shall let the hair of his head grow long" (Numbers 6,5).
, , "- " ( ,). 93 For the Nazarite to shave his hair when he brings his sacrifices at the completion of his Nazariteship, or within his Nazariteship if he has become unclean, as it is written "and if any man die beside him" (Numbers 6,9).
, , " , " ( ,). 94 For a person to fulfill whatever he has uttered, whether a sacrifice or charity and the like, as it is written "that which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do" (Deuteronomy 23,24).
. 95 To judge in annulment of vows according to all of the rules in the matter.
, " -" ( ,). 96 For one who touches the carcass of a beast that died without slaughtering to be unclean, as it is written "and if any beast die" (Leviticus 11,39).
, " " ( ,). 97 For eight specific species of creeping things to defile, as it is written "and these are they which are unclean unto you" (Leviticus 11,29).
, "- " ( ,). 98 For foods to be susceptible to becoming unclean, as it is written "of all food which may be eaten" (Leviticus 11,34).
. 99 For a menstruating woman to be unclean and to defile.
. 100 For a woman after childbirth to be unclean like a menstruating woman.
. 101 For a leper to be unclean and to defile.
. 102 For a leprous garment to be unclean and to defile.
. 103 For a leprous house to defile.
. 104 For a man having a unclean issue to defile.
. 105 For seminal fluid to defile.
. 106 For a woman having an unclean issue to defile.
. 107 For a corpse to defile.
, . , . 108 For the water of sprinkling to defile one who is clean, and to cleanse only those defiled by a corpse. Most of the regulations for each of the above kinds of uncleanness are set out in the Written Torah.
, " --" ( ,); . 109 For purification from all kinds of uncleanness to be effected by immersion in the waters of a ritual bath, as it is written "then he shall bathe all his flesh in water" (Leviticus 15,16); so was it learned from the oral tradition, that this bath must be in enough water so that the whole body is immersed at the same time.
, " " ( ,). 110 For the cleansing from leprosy, whether leprosy of a person or leprosy of a house, to be done with cedar wood, hyssop, scarlet wool, two birds, and spring water, as it is written "this shall be the law of the leper" (Leviticus 14,2).
, " --" ( ,). 111 For the leper to shave all of his hair, as it is written "and it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair" (Leviticus 14,9).
, " , -, ; , " ( ,). . 112 For the leper to be known to all by the things written about him, "his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and shall cry: 'unclean, unclean'" (Leviticus 13,45). So too, all other unclean persons must declare themselves.
, " -" ( ,). 113 To prepare a red heifer so that its ashes are ready, as it is written "and it shall be for the congregation of the Children of Israel" (Numbers 19,9).
, ", " ( ,). 114 For one who vows the value of a person to pay the amount fixed in the Torah, as it is written "when a man shall clearly utter a vow" (Leviticus 27,2).
, " -" ( ,). 115 For one who vows the value of an unclean animal to pay its value, as it is written "then he shall set the beast" (Leviticus 27,11).
, ", - -" ( ,). 116 For one who vows the value of his house to give according to the evaluation of the Priest, as it is written "and when a man shall sanctify his house" (Leviticus 27,14).
, " " ( ,). 117 For one who consecrates a portion of his land to give according to the amount fixed in the Torah, as it is written "if part of the field of his possession" (Leviticus 27,16).
, " - " ( ,). 118 For one who unintentionally benefits from consecrated things or eats a heave offering to add a fifth onto the value and restore it, as it is written "and he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing" (Leviticus 5,16).
, ", --- " ( ,). 119 For the fruit of fruit-bearing trees in the fourth year of their planting to be holy, as it is written "all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise" (Leviticus 19,24).
. 120 To leave the edge of the field unharvested.
. 121 To leave the gleanings of the harvest.
. 122 To leave the forgotten sheaves.
. 123 To leave the gleanings in the vineyard.
. " " ( ,; ,); . 124 To leave the fallen grapes of the vineyard. For on all these it is said "thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger" (Leviticus 19,10; Leviticus 23,22); that is their positive commandment.
, ", " ( ,; ,). 125 To bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary, as it is written "the choicest first-fruits of thy land" (Exodus 23,19; Exodus 34,26).
, " ..." ( ,). 126 To set apart a heave offering for the Priest, as it is written "the first-fruits of thy grain ..." (Deuteronomy 18,4).
, "- " ( ,). 127 To set apart a tithe of grain for the Levites, as it is written "and all the tithe of the land" (Leviticus 27,30).
, " , - " ( ,); . 128 To set apart a second tithe to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem, as it is written "thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed" (Deuteronomy 14,22); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is the second tithe.
, "- " ( ,). 129 For the Levites to set apart a tithe of the tithe taken from the Israelites and to give it to the Priests, as it is written "and thou shalt speak unto the Levites" (Numbers 18,26).
, " , -- " ( ,). 130 To set apart a tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe in the third and sixth years of the seven year cycle, as it is written "at the end of every three years, thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase" (Deuteronomy 14,28).
, " ' " ( ,). 131 To make the tithe declaration, as it is written "then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God, I have put away the hallowed things" (Deuteronomy 26,13).
, " ' " ( ,). 132 To recite the declaration on bringing the first fruits, as it is written "and thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God" (Deuteronomy 26,5).
, ", --, " ( ,). 133 To set apart a portion of the dough for the Priest, as it is written "of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake" (Numbers 15,20).
, " " ( ,). 134 To let the land rest in the Sabbatical year, as it is written "but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow" (Exodus 23,11).
, " , " ( ,). 135 To rest from working the land, as it is written "in plowing time and in harvest thou shalt rest" (Exodus 34,21).
, ", " ( ,). 136 To sanctify the Jubilee year by resting as in the Sabbatical year, as it is written "and ye shall hallow the fiftieth year" (Leviticus 25,10).
, " " ( ,). 137 To sound the shofar in the Jubilee year, as it is written "then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn" (Leviticus 25,9).
, ", , , " ( ,). 138 To grant redemption to the Land in the Jubilee year, as it is written "and in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land" (Leviticus 25,24).
, ", - - " ( ,). 139 For houses sold within a walled city to be redeemable for a year, as it is written "and if a man sell a dwelling-house in a walled city" (Leviticus 25,29).
, " , " ( ,). 140 To count the years of the Jubilee by years and by Sabbaths of years, as it is written "and thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years" (Leviticus 25,8).
, " - " ( ,). 141 To release debts in the Sabbatical year, as it is written "every creditor shall release that which he hath lent" (Deuteronomy 15,2).
, "-, ; " ( ,). 142 To exact the debt of a Gentile, as it is written "of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is" (Deuteronomy 15,3).
, ", , " ( ,). 143 To give to the Priest the foreleg, the jaw, and the stomach of a slaughtered animal, as it is written "and they shall give to the Priest the foreleg" (Deuteronomy 18,3).
, " ---" ( ,). 144 To give the first of the fleece to the Priest, as it is written "and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him" (Deuteronomy 18,4).
, ' , "-- ..." ( ,). 145 To judge in devoted property, whether to the LORD or to the Priest, as it is written "notwithstanding, no devoted thing ..." (Leviticus 27,28).
, " " ( ,). 146 To slaughter animals, beasts, and fowl and then eat their flesh, as it is written "thou shalt slaughter of thy herd and of thy flock" (Deuteronomy 12,21).
, ", -, , " ( ,). 147 To cover the blood of beasts and of fowl, as it is written "he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust" (Leviticus 17,13).
, " -, - -" ( ,). 148 To set the mother bird free, as it is written "thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, but the young thou mayest take unto thyself" (Deuteronomy 22,7).
, " " ( ,). 149 To examine the identifying signs in animals, as it is written "these are the living things which ye may eat" (Leviticus 11,2).
, "- , " ( ,). 150 To examine the identifying signs in fowl to distinguish between the unclean among them and the clean among them, as it is written "of all clean birds ye may eat" (Deuteronomy 14,11).
, "- " ( ,). 151 To examine the identifying signs in locusts to tell the clean from the unclean, as it is written "which have jointed legs" (Leviticus 11,21).
, "-, , , " ( ,; ,). 152 To examine the identifying signs in fishes, as it is written "these may ye eat of all that are in the waters" (Leviticus 11,9; Deuteronomy 14,9).
, " , " ( ,). 153 To sanctify the new month and to calculate years and months in court only, as it is written "this month shall be unto you the beginning of months" (Exodus 12,2).
, " " ( ,; ,). 154 To rest on the Sabbath, as it is written "but on the seventh day thou shalt rest" (Exodus 23,12; Exodus 34,21).
, " - , " ( ,). 155 To hallow the Sabbath, as it is written "remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy" (Exodus 20,7).
, " , " ( ,). 156 To get rid of leaven, as it is written "on the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses" (Exodus 12,15).
, " " ( ,). 157 To tell the story of the Exodus from Egypt on the first night of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, as it is written "and thou shalt tell thy son" (Exodus 13,8).
, ", , " ( ,). 158 To eat unleavened bread on this night, as it is written "at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread" (Exodus 12,18).
, " , -" ( ,). 159 To rest on the first day of Pesach, as it is written "on the first day, a holy convocation" (Exodus 12,16).
, " , -" ( ,; ,). 160 To rest on its seventh day, as it is written "and on the seventh day, a holy convocation" (Exodus 12,16; Numbers 28,25).
, " , " ( ,). 161 To count forty nine days from the time of harvesting the Omer, as it is written "and ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest" (Leviticus 23,15).
, " , -" ( ,). 162 To rest on the fiftieth day, as it is written "and ye shall make proclamation on the selfsame day; a holy convocation" (Leviticus 23,21).
, " , " ( ,). 163 To rest on the first day of the seventh month, as it is written "on the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you" (Leviticus 23,24).
, " -" ( ,; ,). 164 To fast on its tenth day, as it is written "and on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls" (see Leviticus 16,29; Numbers 29,7).
, " " ( ,). 165 To rest on the day of the Fast, as it is written "it shall be unto you a Sabbath of solemn rest" (Leviticus 23,32).
, " , -" ( ,). 166 To rest on the first day of the Festival of Sukkot, as it is written "on the first day shall be a holy convocation" (Leviticus 23,35).
, " -" ( ,). 167 To rest on the eighth day of that festival, as it is written "and on the eighth day shall be a holy convocation" (see Leviticus 23,36).
, " , " ( ,). 168 To dwell in sukkot seven days, as it is written "ye shall dwell in booths seven days" (Leviticus 23,42).
, " , " ( ,). 169 To take up a lolav, as it is written "and ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees" (Leviticus 23,40).
, " , " ( ,). 170 To hear the sound of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, as it is written "it is a day of blowing the horn unto you" (Numbers 29,1).
, " , -" ( ,). 171 To give half a Sheqel every year, as it is written "this they shall give, everyone that passeth" (Exodus 30,13).
, ", " ( ,). 172 To obey every prophet in each generation provided he neither adds to nor takes away from the Torah, as it is written "unto him ye shall hearken" (Deuteronomy 18,15).
, " " ( ,). 173 To appoint a king, as it is written "thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee" (Deuteronomy 17,15).
, "- - --" ( ,). 174 To obey every Great Rabbinical Court established for Israel, as it is written "and according to the judgment which they tell thee, thou shalt do" (Deuteronomy 17,11).
, " --" ( ,). 175 To give decisions according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion in the Sanhedrin in matters of judgment, as it is written "to incline after a multitude" (Exodus 23,2).
, " , -" ( ,). 176 To appoint judges and officers in each and every community of the Land of Israel, as it is written "judges and officers shalt thou make thee" (Deuteronomy 16,18).
, ", " ( ,). 177 To treat parties in a judgment impartially, as it is written "in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour" (Leviticus 19,15).
, " , " ( ,). 178 For one who has evidence to testify in court, as it is written "he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known" (Leviticus 5,1).
, " , " ( ,). 179 To examine the witnesses thoroughly, as it is written "then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently" (Deuteronomy 13,15).
, " , " ( ,). 180 To do to false witnesses as they had plotted to do, as it is written "then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do" (Deuteronomy 19,19).
, "- -, " ( ,). 181 To decapitate the heifer as commanded, as it is written "and they shall break the heifer's neck there in the valley" (Deuteronomy 21,4).
, " , , - " ( ,). 182 To prepare six cities of refuge, as it is written "thou shalt prepare thee the way, and divide the borders of thy land into three parts" (Deuteronomy 19,3).
, , " ... " ( ,). 183 To give the Levites cities to dwell in, and these too serve as cities of refuge, as it is written "that they give unto the Levites ... cities" (Numbers 35,2).
, " " ( ,). 184 To make a parapet, as it is written "thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof" (Deuteronomy 22,8).
, " --" ( ,). 185 To destroy any object of idolatry and all its appurtenances, as it is written "ye shall surely destroy all the places" (Deuteronomy 12,2).
, " ..." ( ,). 186 To kill the inhabitants of a city that has been proselytized over to idolatry and to burn the city, as it is written "and shalt burn with fire ..." (Deuteronomy 13,17).
, " " ( ,). 187 To destroy the seven Canaanite nations from the Land of Israel, as it is written "thou shalt utterly destroy them" (Deuteronomy 20,17).
, " - " ( ,). 188 To completely destroy the seed of Amalek, as it is written "thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek" (Deuteronomy 25,19).
, ", - " ( ,). 189 To perpetually remember what Amalek did, as it is written "remember what Amalek did unto thee" (Deuteronomy 25,17).
, "- -" ( ,). 190 To wage a voluntary war according to the law written in the Torah, as it is written "when thou drawest nigh unto a city" (Deuteronomy 20,10).
, ", -; " ( ,). 191 To anoint a Priest for war, as it is written "and it shall be, when ye draw nigh unto the battle, that the Priest shall approach" (Deuteronomy 20,2).
, " , " ( ,). 192 To prepare a place outside the camp for a latrine, as it is written "thou shalt have a place also without the camp" (Deuteronomy 23,13).
, " , -" ( ,). 193 To prepare a stake for digging, as it is written "and thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons" (Deuteronomy 23,14).
, " - " ( ,). 194 To restore that which one took by robbery, as it is written "he shall restore that which he took by robbery" (Leviticus 5,23).
, " -" ( ,; ,). 195 To give charity, as it is written "thou shalt surely open thy hand" (Deuteronomy 15,8; Deuteronomy 15,11).
, " , " ( ,); . 196 To give gifts to a Hebrew bondman, as it is written "thou shalt furnish him liberally" (Deuteronomy 15,14); and similarly, to a Hebrew bondmaid.
, "- -, -" ( ,); "" , ", " ( ,). 197 To lend to the poor, as it is written "if thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor" (Exodus 22,24); "if" here is not permissive but obligatory, as it is written "and shalt surely lend him" (Deuteronomy 15,8).
, " " ( ,); . 198 To lend to a Gentile at interest, as it is written "unto a foreigner, lend upon interest" (Deuteronomy 23,21); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is a positive commandment.
, " -" ( ,). 199 To return a pledge to its owner, as it is written "thou shalt surely restore to him the pledge" (Deuteronomy 24,13).
, " " ( ,). 200 To pay a hired worker's wages on time, as it is written "in the same day thou shalt give him his hire" (Deuteronomy 24,15).
, " ... " ( ,-). 201 For the hired worker to be permitted to eat while working, as it is written "when thou comest into thy neighbour's vineyard ... when thou comest into thy neighbour's standing corn" (Deuteronomy 23,25-26).
, " , " ( ,). 202 To help another unload his burden or his beast's burden, as it is written "thou shalt surely release it with him" (Exodus 23,5).
, " , " ( ,). 203 To help in reloading the beast, as it is written "thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again" (Deuteronomy 22,4).
, " , " ( ,). 204 To return lost property, as it is written "thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother" (Deuteronomy 22,1).
, " -" ( ,). 205 To rebuke the sinner, as it is written "thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour" (Leviticus 19,17).
, " " ( ,). 206 To love all persons of the Covenant, as it is written "thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself" (Leviticus 19,18).
, ", -" ( ,). 207 To love the convert, as it is written "love ye the stranger" (Deuteronomy 10,19).
, " -" ( ,). 208 To ensure that scales and weights are correct, as it is written "just balances, just weights" (Leviticus 19,36).
, " " ( ,). 209 To honor the wise, as it is written "thou shalt rise up before the hoary head" (Leviticus 19,32).
, " -, -" ( ,; ,). 210 To honor one's father and mother, as it is written "honour thy father and thy mother" (Exodus 20,11; Deuteronomy 5,15).
, " " ( ,). 211 To fear one's father and mother, as it is written "ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father" (Leviticus 19,3).
, " " ( ,). 212 To be fruitful and multiply, as it is written "be ye fruitful, and multiply" (Genesis 9,7).
, "- , ; " ( ,; ,). 213 To take a wife by marriage ceremony, as it is written "if any man take a wife, and go in unto her" (Deuteronomy 22,13; and see Deuteronomy 24,1).
, " , " ( ,). 214 For a newly married husband to gladden his wife one year, as it is written "he shall be free for his house one year" (Deuteronomy 24,5).
, ", , , " ( ,). 215 To circumcise the son, as it is written "and on the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised" (Leviticus 12,3).
, " " ( ,). 216 To marry the widow of a brother who has died childless, as it is written "her husband's brother shall go in unto her" (Deuteronomy 25,5).
, " " ( ,). 217 For the widow to formally release the brother-in-law, as it is written "and loose his shoe from off his foot" (Deuteronomy 25,9).
, "- " ( ,). 218 For the rapist to marry his victim, as it is written "and she shall be his wife" (Deuteronomy 22,29).
, "- " ( ,). 219 For one who defames his wife as a non-virgin at marriage to live with her all his days, as it is written "and she shall be his wife" (Deuteronomy 22,19).
, "- " ( ,). 220 To judge the seducer with a penalty of fifty Sheqels and the rest of the rules for him, as it is written "if a man entice" (Exodus 22,15).
, ", " ( ,). 221 To deal with a beautiful woman taken captive in war as prescribed in the Torah, as it is written "and seest amongst the captives" (Deuteronomy 21,11).
, " " ( ,; ,). 222 To divorce by a written document, as it is written "that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand" (Deuteronomy 24,1; Deuteronomy 24,3).
, " , - " ( ,). 223 To deal with a woman suspected of adultery as prescribed in the Torah, as it is written "and the Priest shall execute upon her all this law" (Numbers 5,30).
, " " ( ,). 224 To whip the wicked, as it is written "that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten" (Deuteronomy 25,2).
, " , - " ( ,). 225 To exile one who committed an accidental homicide, as it is written "and he shall dwell there until the death of the Priest" (see Numbers 35,25).
, ", " ( ,). 226 For a court to execute by decapitation with a sword, as it is written "he shall surely be avenged" (Exodus 21,20).
, "- , " ( ,). 227 For a court to execute by strangulation, as it is written "both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death" (Leviticus 20,10).
, " , " ( ,). 228 For a court to execute by burning, as it is written "they shall be burnt with fire, both he and they" (Leviticus 20,14).
, " " ( ,). 229 For a court to execute by stoning, as it is written "and ye shall stone them" (Deuteronomy 22,24).
, " , -" ( ,). 230 To hang the corpse of one who requires hanging, as it is written "and thou hang him on a tree" (Deuteronomy 21,22).
, "- " ( ,). 231 To bury the executed on the same day, as it is written "but thou shalt surely bury him the same day" (Deuteronomy 21,23).
, " " ( ,). 232 To deal with a Hebrew bondman according to the laws for him, as it is written "if thou buy a Hebrew servant" (Exodus 21,2).
, "- ... -, " ( ,-). 233 To betroth a Hebrew bondmaid, as it is written "who hath espoused her to himself ... and if he espouse her unto his son" (Exodus 21,8-9).
, "" ( ,). 234 To redeem a Hebrew bondmaid, as it is written "then shall he let her be redeemed" (Exodus 21,8).
, ", " ( ,). 235 To use a Canaanite slave forever, as it is written "of them may ye take your bondmen for ever" (Leviticus 25,46).
, "- --" ( ,). 236 For one who inflicts bodily injury to pay damages, as it is written "and if men contend, and smite" (Exodus 21,18).
, "- - - " ( ,). 237 To judge in damage by an animal, as it is written "and if one man's ox hurt another's ox" (Exodus 21,35).
, "- " ( ,). 238 To judge in damage by an uncovered pit, as it is written "if a man shall open a pit" (Exodus 21,33).
, " " ( ,), "-" ( ,), " " ( ,). 239 To judge a thief to payment of compensation or death, as it is written "and if a man steal" (see Exodus 21,37), "if breaking in" (Exodus 22,1), "and he that stealeth a man" (Exodus 21,16).
, " -, -" ( ,). 240 To judge in damage by grazing, as it is written "if a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten" (Exodus 22,4).
, "- " ( ,). 241 To judge in damage by fire, as it is written "if fire break out, and catch in thorns" (Exodus 22,5).
, "- - -" ( ,). 242 To judge in the case of an unpaid depositary, as it is written "if a man deliver to his neighbour money or stuff" (Exodus 22,6).
, "- - -" ( ,). 243 To judge in the case of a paid carrier or lessee, as it is written "if a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox" (Exodus 22,9).
, "- " ( ,). 244 To judge in the case of a borrower, as it is written "and if a man borrow aught of his neighbour" (Exodus 22,13).
, "- " ( ,). 245 To judge in the case of purchase and sale, as it is written "and if thou sell aught" (Leviticus 25,14).
, "---" ( ,). 246 To judge in the case between a claimant and respondent, as it is written "for every matter of trespass" (Exodus 22,8).
, ", -" ( ,). 247 To save the pursued even at the cost of the life of the pursuer, as it is written "then thou shalt cut off her hand" (Deuteronomy 25,12).
, " -, ... " ( ,-).
248 To judge in cases of inheritances, as it is written "if a man die, and have no son ... and it shall be unto the Children of Israel" (Numbers 27,8-11).

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last updated: 31 January 2011

Mishneh Torah - Preface

Introduction | Positive Commandments | Negative Commandments | Structure of the 14 Books